Rick said: >Not to be a stickler but you wrote: >"the violin is tuned openly in fifths (e.g., d-a-d-a)" >I believe this is an open D tuning and NOT a tuning in fifths. Tuning >in >fifths would be d-a-e-c wouldn't it? My bad! You're absolutely right. I should have clarified that. I didn't think of it as meaning "progressing in fifths" (d-a-e-c). I guess it would be more of an "open" tuning, so that each pair of the four strings is tuned in the same relationship of tonic to fifth (d-a-d-a). Some Indian violinists have added an additional fifth string which is tuned to the octave above the higher of the two 'D' strings, and this is often plucked with the pinkie of the left hand to imitate the "chikari" (rhythm/drone) strings on instruments like sitar, sarod and vina. It serves as a sort of "punctuation mark" between phrases in the slower sections and is also used for rhythmic emphasis in faster playing. I've also seen one or two violinists who have added sympathetic strings to the violin as well (like those on the Renaissance viola d'amore or the Norwegian hardanger fiddle). There is also the great crossover artist, L. Shankar, who plays an electric, double-necked violin of his own design which (via octave dividers) can reproduce the ranges of violin, viola, cello and bass. >yours, not an expert, but a good editor, :-) rick walker (loop.pool) Definitely! Thanks for noticing this and pointing it out. Good catch!